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Siklus Hidup Kumbang Tanduk, Cara Pencegahan dan Pengendalian

Siklus Hidup Kumbang Tanduk (Hama Sawit)

Hama kumbang tanduk menyerang tanaman sawit muda, serangan ini dapat menurunkan produksi tandan buah segar (TBS) pada tahun pertama hingga 69% dan menimbulkan kematian pada tanaman muda hingga 25%.

Kumbang ini menggerek jaringan pucuk melalui salah satu ketiak pelepah, setelah masuk merusak pelepah daun yang belum terbuka. Untuk satu ekor kumbang mampu tinggal satu minggu dan merusak 4 pelepah. Pada tanaman sawit kurang dari 2 tahun sangat berbahaya karena dapat merusak titik tumbuh.

Kumbang Jantan memiliki siklus hidup selama 192 hari, sedangkan siklus hidup kumbang betina mampu bertahan 274 hari dengan satu kali siklus hidup menghasilkan 30-70 butir telur. Siklus hidup Kumbang yaitu telur-larva-pupa-kumbang.

Telur kumbang berwarna putih kekuningan dengan diameter 3-4 mm, satu minggu setelah peletakan telur dan menetas pada umur 8-12 hari. Telur kumbang biasanya diletakkan di dalam bahan organic yang telah dalam proses pelapukan.

Larva berkembang pada kayu lapuk, kompos, dan hampir semua bahan organic yagn sedang mengalami proses pembusukan dengan kelembapan yang cukup. Usia larva berlangsung sekitar 60-165 hari.

Pupa merupakan fase pertumbuhan setelah menjadi larva di dalam bahan organic. Pupa akan berada di dalam tanah selama masa pertumbuhannya. Pupa jantan berukuran sekitar 3-5 cm, dan yang betina agak lebih pendek. Pupa berwarna coklat kekuningan, fase pupa berlangsung selama 17-28 hari.

Imago atau kumbang dewasa merupakan tahap akhir pertumbuhan kumbang. Kumbang tanduk berwarna gelap sampai hitam, mengkilap, panjang 35-50 mm dan lebar 20-23 mm dengan satu tanduk yang lebih panjang dari betina. Demikian satu siklus hama ini dari terlur sampai dewasa sekitar 6-9 bulan.

Cara Pencegahan dan Pengendalian

Pengendalian yang paling utama yaitu pencegahan untuk menghambat perkembangan larva pada media hidupnya atau mencegah dan mengurangi tempat peletekan telur.

Hal ini dapat dilaksanakan dengan :

  1. Memaksimalkan penanaman penutup tanah hingga batang tumbang dapat segera tertutup. Sebelum batang tumbang mulai membusuk hendaknya sudah tertutup. Untuk itu perlu dicari tanaman penutup tanah yang cepat menutup. Mucuna cochichinensis kecepatan menutupnya memang baik tetapi berumur pendek (7-8 bulan) sehingga batang yang telah membusuk itu akan terbuka kembali. Kombinasi Mucuna sp. Dengan jenis penutup tanah lainnya yang dapat menggantikan kedudukan Mucuna seperti Calopogonium caeruleum sangat dianjurkan.
  2. Penghancuran batang dengan pembelahan secara mekanis dan membakarnya merupakan upaya yang baik sekali untuk menghilangkan media pembiakan (breeding site) sebelum penanaman namun biayanya akan mahal. Pembelahan batang sesudah penanaman akan merusak pertumbuhan kacangan.
  3. Pemberian bahan pengusir seperti kapur barus yang diletakkan pada batang kelapa sawit yang mulai membusuk ternyata cukup baik untuk mengusirnya namun cara ini sulit pengontrolannya dan kurang efektif pada daerah yang banyak hujan

Sedangkan cara pengendaliannya dilakukan dengan cara berikut :

  1. Pengendalian Kimiawi, pemberantasan secara kimiawi dapat dilakukan dengan menyemprotkan insektisida berbahan aktif karbosulfan. Penyemprotan dikhususkan pada pucuk tanaman karena pada bagian ini paling disukai oleh kumbang.
  2. Pengendalian Mekanik, pengendalian secara mekanik dapat dilakukan dengan mengutip (hand picking) larva maupun kumbang. Larva dapat dikutip dengan membongkar tempat tempat yang merupakan sarang hama seperti tandan kosong kelapa sawit, rumpukan batang kelapa sawit, rumpukan serbuk gergaji kayu, kotoran berbagai hewan ternak dan bahan organik lain. Sedangkan kumbang dapat diperoleh dengan mencucukkan kawat berpancing kedalam lubang gerekan pada pelepah
  3. Pengendalian Hayati, pengendalian hayati dilakukan dengan menggunakan bantuan senjata biologis, yakni dengan memanfaatkan agensia pengendali hayati atau bisa disebut musuh alaminya. Musuh alami O. rhinoceros adalah berbagai macam mikroorganisme, antara lain adalah jamur entomopatogen Metarrhizium anisopliae yang dapat menyebabkan mumifikasi pada larva serta Bacolovirus yang dapat menyebabkan kematian pada larva maupun kumbang.
  4. Pengendalian Nabati, pestisida Nabati adalah pestisida yang bahan aktifnya berasal dari tumbuhan atau bagian tumbuhan seperti akar, daun, batang atau buah. Bahan-bahan ini diolah menjadi berbagai bentuk, antara lain bahan mentah berbentuk tepung, ekstrak atau resin yang merupakan hasil pengambilan cairan metabolit sekunder dari bagian tumbuhan atau bagian tumbuhan dibakar untuk diambil abunya dan digunakan sebagai pestisida. Pestisida dari bahan nabati sebenarnya bukan hal yang baru tetapi sudah lama digunakan, bahkan sama tuanya dengan pertanian itu sendiri.

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    วัดเกต , ช้างเผือก , สุเทพ , แม่เหียะ , ป่าแดด , หนองหอย , ท่าศาลา , หนองป่าครั่ง ,
    ฟ้าฮ่าม , ป่าตัน , สันผีเสื้อ , อำเภอจอมทอง
    , อำเภอเชียงดาว , อำเภอดอยสะเก็ด , อำเภอแม่ริม , อำเภอสะเมิง , อำเภอฝาง , อำเภอแม่อาย ,
    อำเภอพร้าว , อำเภอสันป่าตอง , อำเภอสันกำแพง , อำเภอสันทราย , สันทรายหลวง
    , สันทรายน้อย , สันพระเนตร ,
    สันนาเม็ง , สันป่าเปา , หนองแหย่ง
    , หนองจ๊อม , หนองหาร , แม่แฝก , แม่แฝกใหม่
    , เมืองเล็น , ป่าไผ่ , อำเภอหางดง , หางดง
    , หนองแก๋ว , หารแก้ว , หนองตอง , ขุนคง
    , สบแม่ข่า , บ้านแหวน , สันผักหวาน
    , หนองควาย , บ้านปง
    , น้ำแพร่ , อำเภอฮอด , อำเภอดอยเต่า , อำเภออมก๋อย , อำเภอเวียงแหง ,
    อำเภอไชยปราการ , อำเภอแม่วาง , อำเภอแม่ออน , อำเภอดอยหล่อ ,
    อำเภอกัลยาณิวัฒนา

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